Visitor Submit: What Can We Study from One Million Open Entry Articles?

Editor’s Notice: At this time’s submit is by Steven Inchcoombe. Steven is Chief Publishing Officer at Springer Nature. He’s a member of the Administration Board and his obligations cowl all of the analysis publishing and editorial actions of Springer Nature, the companies offered to its authors, peer-reviewers, editors and societies, the expertise of its prospects when utilizing its merchandise and publishing platforms, and its Open Entry and Open Analysis actions. Beforehand Steven was Head of Home and CEO at Nature Publishing Group (NPG) and Palgrave Macmillan (PM).

In January 2005, a paper was revealed within the Journal of Biomedical Science. “T cell responses to allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells: immunogenicity, tolerance, and suppression” explored whether or not stem cells might be transplanted into different people with out the immune system (i.e., white blood cells) recognizing them as “international” and stimulating an immune response. An vital research in its personal proper, having been cited over 400 instances, what makes this paper much more notable for us at Springer Nature is that it marks the beginning of the one million instantly and absolutely open entry (OA) major analysis and evaluation articles that we’ve got revealed and are in a position to analyze.

These articles cowl all educational disciplines and vary from these which give groundbreaking analysis to that which provides quietly however importantly to the tutorial literature and helps the event of additional analysis. And as analysis reveals that articles revealed OA have increased impact, usage, and reach, authors have additionally benefited.

However reaching such a milestone is one factor — extra vital, given the information that it makes accessible, is what it might probably inform us about how the transition to OA goes and what we have to do now to assist pace up progress to a extra open science future.

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How is the transition going?

General I consider the transition goes nicely. From a gradual begin, as a sector we’ve got now reached the purpose the place, in 2020, a 3rd (33%) of articles have been revealed OA.

Trying nevertheless at our 1m, this does, although, masks fairly a variation amongst completely different educational disciplines. From our information, medical analysis is overwhelmingly driving the transition, with Medication accounting for 44% of our 1m articles. The subsequent highest self-discipline is Life Sciences, which accounts for 17%. This development of Medication outperforming the opposite disciplines so strongly has barely modified from 2015.

We’re beginning to see some robust progress in social science and humanities. As has been documented elsewhere, these disciplines are discovering transitioning to OA and assembly Plan S’s necessities more difficult than these within the medical, utilized and bodily sciences. That is for quite a lot of causes, however primarily due to the dearth of accessible funding. It’s due to this fact encouraging to see that, although this was from a low base, between 2015 and 2020 social science and humanities doubled their OA share.

Our information additionally brings up some fascinating geographic variations. For instance, Europe and Asia are robust turbines of OA content material, accounting for 40% and 33% respectively in 2021. Conversely, North America accounts for 18%, maybe demonstrating the comparatively low engagement with Gold OA amongst US funding our bodies to this point.

Extra broadly, within the final 5 years, these 1m articles have been downloaded 2.6 billion instances. That’s a median of two,600 downloads for every article, a robust demonstration of the worth being derived from OA. Translating that into one thing institutional librarians may admire, that’s a value of lower than Euro 1 per obtain primarily based on all their one-time APCs.

What do we have to do now?

First, we have to transfer quicker as an organization, as an trade, and as a broader ecosystem the place funding companies and establishments are key members. Along with having transitioned all of our owned non-fully OA journals to be Transformative Journals, inserting all of them, even Nature, on the trail to OA, we’re additionally dedicated to considerably growing our general quantity of OA content material.  Subsequently, by 2024, we’re concentrating on over 50% of Springer Nature’s article output to be OA, instantly accessible for all to find, share, use and reuse from the second it’s revealed.

Second, we have to take an excellent have a look at the challenges and obstacles sure educational disciplines are going through. This must be a transition which is inclusive, one which brings everybody with us. A method of doing that is through Transformative Agreements. Whereas our early Compact agreements didn’t all the time embrace journals from our predominantly non-STM portfolios, we are actually addressing this, working with our consortium companions to deliver these into our present and new agreements. Enabling researchers to publish OA no matter their educational self-discipline is a crucial position TA’s play and we need to guarantee they play it to the total.

Third, there are clearly areas of the world which are struggling to transition their analysis output to OA. There shall be quite a lot of completely different causes for this and we have to work with them to seek out options that work for them and meet their wants. We and different publishers have a protracted monitor document of offering waivers and reductions for a lot of, however this will’t scale sufficiently and we’d like different options that the entire analysis neighborhood will help.

Trying forward

If these three points will be addressed then I consider the opportunity of a completely OA future is trying optimistic. Publishers completely have a task to play in guaranteeing there are sustainable OA publishing choices that meet the wants of all authors. Springer Nature is ticking that field with our 600 absolutely OA journals, our Transformative Journal dedication enabling authors to select from nicely over 2000 additional journals, and the introduction of recent fully-OA journals. Publishers can not do that alone nevertheless. We want funders, establishments and consortia to return with us on this full and rapid Gold OA journey and decide to insurance policies which clearly place Gold OA as the popular publishing choice for the analysis they’ve funded. The false promise of Inexperienced OA is one which we collectively as a sector want to maneuver away from. As I’ve mentioned earlier than, it’s merely not sustainable, relying because it does on the continuation of library subscription charges. The remoted accepted manuscript (AM) model is not what researchers want to use and leaving the fully-maintained closing model of document behind a paywall slows the transfer to open science, or probably jeopardizes it with AM’s decrease requirements, which is the other of what science wants.

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